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Zambia is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. It is bordered by eight countries: Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Namibia to the west, Angola to the west, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north.



Zambia has a tropical climate with three distinct seasons: a rainy season from November to April, a cool and dry season from May to August, and a hot and dry season from September to October. The country’s climate varies from tropical savanna in the north to tropical wet and dry climate in the south.


Zambia is known for its rich biodiversity, with a wide variety of wildlife species inhabiting its national parks and game reserves. The country is home to the famous “Big Five” (lion, leopard, elephant, buffalo, and rhinoceros) as well as numerous other mammal, bird, reptile, and insect species.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Zambia is the Zambezi River, which flows for approximately 2,574 kilometers (1,599 miles) through the country. The Zambezi River is one of Africa’s major rivers and is known for its spectacular Victoria Falls, one of the largest waterfalls in the world.

Highest Mountains

The highest mountain in Zambia is Mafinga Central, also known as Mafinga Hills, located in the Muchinga Province. It has an elevation of approximately 2,339 meters (7,674 feet) above sea level.



The area of present-day Zambia has been inhabited for thousands of years, with evidence of human activity dating back to the Stone Age. Early inhabitants were hunter-gatherers, followed by Bantu-speaking tribes who migrated into the region around the 4th century AD.

Kingdoms and Empires

Zambia was home to several powerful kingdoms and empires, including the Luba and Lunda kingdoms in the north and the Lozi kingdom in the west. The most notable of these was the Kingdom of the Bemba, which emerged in the 18th century and became one of the largest and most influential kingdoms in the region.

Colonial Period

European explorers began arriving in Zambia in the 18th century, with the British establishing control over the territory in the late 19th century. Zambia, then known as Northern Rhodesia, was governed as a British protectorate until it gained independence in 1964.

Independence and Modern Era

Zambia gained independence from British rule on October 24, 1964, with Kenneth Kaunda serving as its first president. The country experienced significant economic growth and development in the decades following independence, but also faced challenges such as political instability and the HIV/AIDS epidemic.


Zambia has a population of approximately 18 million people, with a diverse mix of ethnic groups, including the Bemba, Tonga, Lozi, Ngoni, Lunda, and Chewa. The majority of Zambians are Bantu-speaking, with English being the official language and several indigenous languages spoken.

Administrative Divisions

Zambia is divided into 10 provinces, each headed by a provincial minister appointed by the president. The provinces are further divided into districts, constituencies, and wards. The largest provinces by population include Lusaka, Copperbelt, and Southern Province.

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Lusaka
  2. Kitwe
  3. Ndola
  4. Kabwe
  5. Chingola
  6. Mufulira
  7. Livingstone
  8. Luanshya
  9. Kasama
  10. Chipata

Education Systems

Education in Zambia is provided by the government and is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 7 and 16. The country has several universities, including the University of Zambia and Copperbelt University, which offer a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate programs.



Zambia has several airports, including Kenneth Kaunda International Airport in Lusaka, Harry Mwanga Nkumbula International Airport in Livingstone, and Simon Mwansa Kapwepwe International Airport in Ndola.


Zambia has a total railway network of approximately 2,037 kilometers (1,266 miles), with the Zambia Railways line connecting major cities and towns in the country.


Zambia has an extensive road network, with over 91,000 kilometers (56,500 miles) of paved and unpaved roads. The Great North Road and the Tazara Road are the country’s major highways, connecting Zambia to neighboring countries.


Zambia is a landlocked country and therefore does not have any major ports. However, it relies on the ports of neighboring countries such as Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and Beira in Mozambique for international trade.

Country Facts

  • Population: 18 million
  • Capital: Lusaka
  • Language: English (official), Bemba, Tonga, Lozi, Nyanja, Chewa, and others
  • Religion: Christianity (predominantly Protestant and Roman Catholic)
  • Currency: Zambian kwacha (ZMW)
  • ISO Country Codes: ZM, ZMB
  • International Calling Code: +260
  • Top-Level Domain: .zm